Tagged: writing

Lemon Squeezy

Another song from eapguru – this time to practice the words ‘easy and ‘difficult’. See also this earlier post for further practice of these not-so-easy items!

A free handout with lyrics and tasks for students accompanies the song. The video features Indonesian EAP students preparing to study abroad. Enjoy!

@eapguru

Labouring over ‘labourers’

šŸ˜¦ Some people claim that working hours for labours in factories are too long.

flag-of-indonesiaĀ Here an Indonesian student is trying to find a synonym for ‘worker’. Unfortunately the hierarchy of ‘work’ is labelled differently in English.

In English a ‘labourer’ (‘labour’ + ‘er’) does work that distinguish him or herĀ from other kinds of worker:

  • Labourers are usually unskilled.
  • Labourers often have to use physical strength because their work requires them to lift and carry things.
  • The work of labourers is generally outdoor work.
  • Labouring is often dirty work.
  • Labouring is not very well paid in most countries.

Here are some pictures of ‘labourers’.

If you want to use a synonym for ‘worker’ then try toĀ consider:

  • where the work takes place
  • the level of skill involved
  • the salary it attracts

These considerations will lead you to a more accurate label for the work you are talking or writing about. In IELTS a more accurate labelĀ is also likely to get you a higher score for Lexical Resource (vocabulary).

This dictionary entry offers a wide selection of labels forĀ different kinds of work.

Other word forms and idioms

Labourer – the person (countable)

Labour – noun (uncountable, abstract meaning)

Labour – verb

Laborious – adjective (Sometimes skilled work can be ‘laborious’, especially if it requires physical effort or is repetitive).

Hard labour – A form of punishment used by tyrannical governments, often for political prisoners.Ā If my work feels like hard labour, it’s very hard work!

In labour – Giving birth!

Labour over something – Work extra hard at a task.


@eapguru

When ‘existence’ should not exist

šŸ˜¦ Some people believe that the existence of machines helps to generateĀ more profit than loss.

flag-of-indonesiaĀ This is a common translation problem for Indonesians. Keberadaan!

In English it is automatically assumed that things and people exist, unless otherwise stated.

šŸ™‚ Some people believe thatĀ machinesĀ help to generateĀ more profit than loss.

šŸ™‚ Some people believe that the absence of machines can result in losses.

Incidentally, can anyone guessĀ the names of the couple in the cover photo for this post, and why were they chosen? Comments below! šŸ™‚

@eapguru

Humans are usually redundant

šŸ˜¦ In conclusion, long working hours areĀ necessary for human beings.

flag-of-indonesiaĀ I’m guessing this may beĀ a cultural issue.

Let’s try aĀ quickĀ test.Ā Which of the following sentences is NOT about working hours and humans?

  1. Long working hours are necessary for human beings.
  2. Long working hours are necessary.
  3. Long working hours are necessary for ants.

Hopefully you chose number 3. In any discussion of working hours, and indeed of many other topics, we’re usually talking about human beings, unless otherwise specified.

The only time we really need to mention humans is when we’re contrasting them with non-humans!

@eapguru

Ethnic(ity)

šŸ˜¦ Different ethnics will have different languages to communicate.

flag-of-indonesia This is one of those situations where the English word has been borrowed and its use altered. In this case what was in English an adjective has been turned into a noun.

English offers two word forms – ethnic (adjective), ethnicity (noun):

šŸ™‚ Different ethnic groups will have different languages to communicate.

šŸ™‚ People with different ethnicity will have different languages to communicate.

And by the way, how exactly do you describe your own ethnicity? Comments below!

@eapguru

Are the benefits beneficial?

šŸ˜¦ Constructing impressive buildings benefits more forĀ visitors than local people.

flag-of-indonesiaĀ This is another word that gets partly lost in translation. Let’s look at some possible improvements.

Benefit –Ā verb

Constructing impressive buildings benefitsĀ visitors more than local people.

The verb ‘benefit’ is transitive, no preposition. Notice the position of ‘more’ in the comparison!

Beneficial – adjective

Constructing impressive buildings is more beneficial forĀ visitors than for local people.

The adjective ‘beneficial’ may be followed by a preposition phrase – usually ‘beneficial + for’ (except “When attempting to lose weight it is more beneficial to exercise than to diet.”).

Without a comparative you might also write:

Constructing impressive buildings is beneficial.

Benefit – noun

The benefits to visitors of constructing impressive buildings are greater than the benefits to local people.

The noun ‘benefit’ – when applied to people (visitors) – is followed by ‘to‘.
When applied to things (constructing impressive buildings) it is followed by ‘of‘.

@eapguru

(And) besides

Besides…
And besides…

These are often used inaccurately as they donā€™t translate well from other languages.

Besides

Letā€™s use besides to modify the following argument:

I donā€™t think we should go to the cinema tonight. First of all I donā€™t like the film. Secondly, there is an unusual amount of traffic in town. Finally, we donā€™t have any money.

Here there are three supports for not wanting to see the film:

  1. I donā€™t like the film.
  2. The traffic in town is heavy.
  3. We donā€™t have any money.

The same argument could be expressed using besides, as follows:

I donā€™t think we should go to the cinema tonight. Besides not liking the film and the unusual amount of traffic in town, we donā€™t have any money.

The second sentence (the supports) can be represented:

Besides + claim(s) [expressed as noun phrases] + , + final claim [expressed as a sentence].

In this case ‘besides’ simply means ‘as well as’.

And besides

Here the meaning is a little different:

I donā€™t think we should go to the cinema tonight. First of all I donā€™t like the film. Secondly, there is an unusual amount of traffic in town. And besides, we donā€™t have any money.

The claim introduced by and besides is much stronger than the preceding claims. In fact, it is so strong that it is really not necessary to consider the previous claims. If we have no money, then thereā€™s no way we can go to the cinema!

Again, itā€™s useful to diagram the structure:

Weak claim(s) + And besides + very strong [and final!] claim

Here the meaning is more than just ‘as well as’. ‘And besides’ introduces a very powerful claim that makes all other preceding claims redundant.

@eapguru